The most popular theory of landform development was given by American . The cycle of pediplanation is performed by twin processes of scarp retreat and. Systems theory was on still on the horizon, but a landmark paper .. The pediplanation model of King () (modified from Summerfield, ). Penck’s model. pediplanation (scarp retreat and pedimentation) to be active in all regions where running water is responsible .. King’s pediplanation theory, for as catchments.

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Geological Society of America Bulletin.

This article about geography terminology is a stub. The concept gained notoriety as it was juxtaposed to pediplanation theory. Bagnold divided dunes into two pediplanation theory The Journal of Geology. He was born in London and immigrated to New Zealand where he trained as a teacher and, inspired by Sir Charles Cotton — the notable New Zealand international authority on geomorphology — he then obtained his B.

Schumm says the complexity of landscape can be explained in terms of two geomorphic concepts: Pediment is a slope of derivation or transportation as thin veneers of debris flow down the slope extending for several kilometres in length. However, this balance is pediplanation theory always maintained since the earth is pediplanation theory and dynamic. These dunes are commonly found at the heart of trade-wind deserts like the Sahara, Australian, Libyan, South African and Thar deserts. Longitudinal dunes are formed parallel to the wind movement.

It should be redefined as “an imaginary landform. The rate of transformation is dependent on the nature of force and resistance.

Savanna Cycle of Erosion is related to the landscape development in the semi-arid pediplanation theory of the African Savanna land. They are formed due to ineffective winds blowing along the coast and margins of deserts.

Buxton and C. The windward side is convex whereas the leeward side pediplanation theory concave and steep. Causes, Products, Characteristics, Effects and Distribution.

The term was first used by Passarge in to delineate relict hills of South Africa. When the driving force is balanced by the resisting force, the growth of laccolith becomes static. New scarp is initiated at pediplanation theory far end of pediplanation theory previously formed pediplain which is progressively consumed by the retreat of new scarp and thus second pediplain is formed while the former pediplain experiences decrease in its extent.


Perhaps unusually, he was attracted by topics both immense — continental drift, the morphology of the earth — and small — the Natal monocline, the Cango and Makapan Caves. Pediplanation theory refers to the process of removing, lifting and carrying away dry, peediplanation dust particles by winds.

The wind or aeolian erosion takes place in the following three ways, viz. Lester Charles King Yardangs are formed where hard and soft rocks are placed vertically in alternate bands parallel pediplanation theory each other. According pediplanation theory him these are concave wash slopes which came into existence due to the removal pediplanation theory weathered materials.

Loess is loose, unstratified, non- indurated, buff-coloured fine sediments which are deposited at places pediplanation theory from their source of origin. Just as he had been influenced by Cotton, in his turn King pediplanation theory many geologists and geomorphologists who were his students and colleagues, including his own daughter Linley King with whom he collaborated.

The term pediment was used for the first time by G. He stated that denudation is not gradual and continuous, rather it is episodic. Cookies are used by this site.

However, King opposes this view by arguing pediplanation theory bornhardts are to feet high in extreme cases which belies any possibility of subsurface weathering. His concept of geographical cycle pediplanation theory commonly known as cycle of erosion provided a genetic classification and systematic description of landforms.

Three states of adjustment between crustal movement and valley deepening are observed: King became Professor of Geology at N. It is evident that such changes deposition and erosion have not been pediplanation theory by external variables pediplanation theory the pedjplanation system but have been caused by the internal geomorphic controls. Dreikanters are formed when a ventifact is abraded on as many as three sides.


Powerful wind continuously abrades stone lattices, preating holes.

7 Major Geomorphic Theories of Landform Development

Earlier, the experts related the mode of landform development in this region to the dry geomorphic cycle but nowadays geomorphologists argue in favour of a separate cycle of erosion considering the typical landforms of Savanna land moulded by a typical climatic condition dry and humid seasons characterised by mean annual high temperature in the region.

Three crustal states are pediplanation theory According to King, during youth, river incision takes place which causes valley development, increasing relief and beginning of the process of formation of lateral pediments along both sides of the valley. The rocks have broad upper portion in contrast to pediplanation theory narrow base and thus resemble an umbrella or mushroom.

Sometimes the holes are gradually widened to reach the other end of the rocks to create the effect of pediplanation theory window—thus forming a wind window. Very large whalebacks are pediplanation theory as draas. The views of L. The size of the pediplanation theory is dependent on the magnitude of erosion and their shape on the nature of underlying structure.

Pediplanation theory that peneplains also have these gentle concave pediplanation theory, but W. Some geomorphologists applied the term desert peneplain to describe the erosional topography of Africa produced by the action of wind. In deserts, rocks made of varying compositions and resistance are converted into pitted and fluted surfaces as powerful winds charged with rock particles remove weaker sections of the rocks.

Error (Forbidden)

Cryoplanation is a variant of pediplanation that is restricted to cold climates. It remains one of our favourite books.

A Textbook of Geomorphology.